Rare Earth Elements, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
REE Facts | HREE Facts | LREE Facts | Rare Metal Resource
LREE : 57 Lanthanum | 58 Cerium | 59 Praseodymium | 60 Neodymium | 61 Promethium | 62 Samarium | 63 Europium | 64 Gadolinium
HREE : 65 Terbium | 66 Dysprosium | 67 Holmium | 68 Erbium | 69 Thulium | 70 Ytterbium | 71 Lutetium | 39 Yttrium
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
The "Laser" Heavy Rare Earth Element Holmium
Tracy Weslosky, Editor, InvestorIntel
Source: REE Handbook

Holmium, REE Collection, ProEdge Media Corp. Have you ever wondered what lasers are made of? Whether in the medical, military or aerospace setting, chances are the laser is made with holmium. Holmium: yttrium aluminum garnet (Ho:YAG) is the most widely used laser in medical surgical procedures. It is also used in solid state military and space-based lasers distance and ranging (LADAR) systems to create 3-dimensional images and to detect objects at great distances. In a counterintelligence application, laser-based Ho:YAG is used in infrared countermeasure (IRCM) systems to confuse heat-seeking missiles fired at jets and helicopters. Holmium is also one of the colorants used in cubic zirconia jewellery to yield peach and yellow hues.

Swedish chemist Per Teodor Cleve discovered holmium in 1879 and was named by him in honour of Holmia, the Latin name for the city of Stockholm (Cleve, 1879). Holmium is a malleable, bright silver metal that is stable in dry air. In moist air and at elevated temperatures it oxidizes rapidly. Its oxide variant, holmia is light yellow powder with a melting point of 2,360 °C. Holmium is the third member of the heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) and has three electron pairs.

Holmium occurs in various minerals in differing concentrations and occurs in a wide variety of geologic environments. Large resources of holmium in xenotime and monazite are available worldwide. It occurs in the Earth's crust at an average concentration of 1 parts per million. Monazite-(Ce), which is more abundant in the Earth's crust than xenotime, has holmium oxide contents of 0.05% to 0.12% of the rare earth oxide content. Only trace amounts of holmium oxide occur in bastnäsites at the Bayan Obo mine in China and at Mountain Pass in the United States. In Canada holmium deposits have been found in Manitoba, Saskatchewan, the Northwest Territories and Quebec. Deposits of holmium have also been found in Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

The main source of the world's holmium is the ion-adsorption lateritic clays in the southern provinces of China, primarily Fujian, Guangdong, and Jiangxi, with a lesser number of deposits in Guangxi and Hunan. These deposits are mined by leaching methods (Hedrick, 2010).

For more information on the heavy rare earth element holmium, visit www.REEHandbook.com – the ultimate source for information on rare earth elements.

Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
InvestorIntel, Investors Intelligence REE Stocks Company Limited, REE Leaders Index REEHandbook, REE Elements
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
Featured Images
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
 
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
 
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel
 
Holmium, Heavy Rare Earth Elements, HREE, REE Facts, ProEdge Media Corp., InvestorIntel